Myocardial infarction: causes
He who is warned will survive himself and help his loved ones survive. Among the causes of such a disease as a heart attack are both genetic characteristics of the body and acquired disorders associated with concomitant diseases and bad habits. The main cause of myocardial infarction is atherosclerosis . Cholesterol is deposited on the walls of the arteries. It provokes thrombosis. The coronary vessel is blocked due to the rupture or damage of the cholesterol plaque.
The work of the cardiovascular system deteriorates with age, so disability and mortality are more likely to threaten people after 35-40 years. According to statistics, in a year, six out of a thousand people become victims of this condition.
Often the cause of a heart attack is the restructuring of the body when:
violations of pressure;
smoking, alcoholism, drug addiction;
excess meat in the diet;
peripheral vascular diseases.
The listed causes of acute heart attack can be eliminated. More rare risk factors (about 10%): anemia, flu, carbon monoxide poisoning, sepsis, systemic vasculitis are also treatable. Cases of coronary heart disease in the family are another factor, therefore, it is worth paying attention to the diagnosis of the cardiovascular system , if such episodes are known.
Causes of a heart attack in women and men
The first signs, symptoms, causes of a heart attack may also depend on gender.
The male body is more prone to this dangerous condition than the female, at least until the age of 40-50 (the onset of menopause). Until that time, the female cardiovascular system is better protected by estrogen. Therefore, of the listed general factors of MI, many are not so relevant until menopause occurs.
The difference in the structure of the body also leads to the fact that in men the symptoms are more pronounced. Women under 55 are several times more likely to be misdiagnosed than men. Some doctors reassure their patients that they cannot have a heart attack. At the same time, attention is paid to the “too young” age. In general, long-term survival after an attack is lower in women than in men.
In young women, the main problem factors are smoking (cigarettes neutralize the protective effect of estrogens), plaque erosion, and coronary artery disease. In older women – impaired lipid metabolism in the blood, plaque rupture, calcification of the coronary arteries. An additional role is played by the levels of creatinine, glucose, sodium, potassium.
Among the causes of heart attack in men more often than in women, stress at work (temporary or permanent) plays a significant role. The risk of mortality increases due to age (on average, over 60 years) for all categories of patients.
Types of infarction
More dangerous is considered a Q-forming extensive infarction: the reasons are that necrosis captures large areas of the heart. Without the Q wave, the condition is usually less dangerous.
Based on the location of the thrombus, the infarction is classified as inferior or anterolateral.
the most acute – the first hours, help is needed urgently;
acute – the first day, complications are possible;
subacute – three to four weeks, the heart is restored;
cicatricial – lasts for years and decades.
The main causes of a heart attack that cannot be diagnosed in time are concomitant pathological conditions, for example, brain damage, asthma and others.
Myocardial infarction: symptoms
When making a preliminary diagnosis, it should be remembered that the causes of myocardial infarction in men and women, as well as symptoms, may differ.
The first symptoms of a heart attack in men are more pronounced:
pain in the chest, radiates to other parts of the body;
pain lasts from half an hour, nitroglycerin does not help;
the person turns pale, weakens, becomes covered with cold sweat, is afraid to die.
The first symptoms of a heart attack in women are less pronounced. Often it does not hurt so much, the sensation is atypical.
In any case, when a heart attack occurs, symptoms and first signs appear suddenly. A person often drinks strong drinks before this, is overloaded or worried, he may have high blood pressure.
At the next stages of a heart attack, its signs (symptoms) in women and men are similar. The death of heart cells provokes shortness of breath, the organ works intermittently, the body gets tired faster, for no apparent reason it hurts behind the breastbone.
How to provide first aid
If a heart attack is suspected, the symptoms are similar to this condition – an ambulance should be called immediately. Before the arrival of doctors, you must:
give the patient nitroglycerin and half a tablet of aspirin;
help him take a semi-sitting position;
unfasten tight clothing;
calm and prepare for hospitalization.
As mentioned above, with a heart attack, the signs and symptoms in men are more pronounced, in addition, often the age factor under 45-50 years old prevents one from suggesting heart problems, so people, especially women, are in no hurry to seek help. There is no time to waste in any case. Ambulance staff provide first aid, take an ECG and hospitalize the patient.
If you do not track the symptoms accompanying a heart attack in a timely manner, the consequences can be the most sad. The task of doctors in urgent hospitalization is to stop shock, heart failure in its acute form and other early effects.
But long-term complications can arise after inpatient treatment. The most common:
heart failure on an ongoing basis;
regular heartbeat irregularities;
angina pectoris and others.
The survival rate for a secondary attack of a heart attack is significantly lower. It is impossible to cope with all this on your own – you need the help of qualified doctors.
Diagnostics and treatment
Unfortunately, in everyday life there is no one hundred percent way to recognize a heart attack: the symptoms can go away imperceptibly, or they can indicate other conditions. It requires laboratory and hardware diagnostics of a heart attack , as well as experienced doctors who will decipher the indications accurately.
The primary basis for the diagnosis is an electrocardiogram, it is done immediately. However, for successful further treatment, a more complete examination is required – ultrasound of the heart, coronary angiography , laboratory tests.
After that, the doctor will determine the treatment protocol. Given that the main causes of a heart attack are associated with damage to the coronary artery, it is it that is restored – a stent is installed or treated with medications. Skilled surgery is the best way to prevent complications. Modern methods of endovascular surgery allow minimally traumatic surgery with a short rehabilitation period. In special cases, bypass surgery is prescribed.
After treatment, the patient is prescribed drugs that he takes for a specified period, and some – indefinitely. Often, a previously transferred similar episode, after which preventive recommendations were not followed, acts as the cause of acute myocardial infarction .
You should not self-medicate and rely entirely on “traditional medicine”. No one can handle life-threatening risks better than trained, experienced doctors.
Prevention of myocardial infarction
On average, the rehabilitation period after the main treatment is about six months. At this time, the patient must follow a diet, limit exercise, perform exercise therapy, and also take prescribed medications. But this does not mean that a person is completely healthy in a year. In the future, you will have to constantly adjust your lifestyle, limit bad habits and undergo regular medical examinations.
It is worth remembering how insidious and dangerous myocardial infarction is – even if the attack was stopped, scars on the heart, possible aneurysm, the development of heart failure and other complications will manifest themselves without timely treatment, and will significantly affect the quality of life. Comprehensive support of the doctors of the Chekhov Vascular Center will maximize the chances of saving the patient and prevent problems in the future.