In the modern world, a huge number of people are faced with cardiovascular diseases. These diseases are the leading cause of death and disability in economically developed countries. The severity of these diseases increases every year. Undoubtedly, this is influenced by the climate, lifestyle and rhythm of life. Most people live in a frantic pace: work, home, work. They are not even aware of the presence of diseases of their main muscle.
Diseases of the cardiovascular system include: myocardial dystrophy, myocarditis, endocarditis, heart defects, pericarditis, atherosclerosis, ischemic heart disease (angina pectoris, myocardial infarction), hypertension and hypotonic disease, thrombophlebitis, varicose veins, etc. deserves coronary heart disease. This disease is associated with acute or chronic dysfunction of the heart muscle due to a decrease in the supply of the myocardium with arterial blood as a result of an atherosclerotic process in the vessels. Ischemic disease is a psychosomatic illness (not only of the body, but also of the soul). It is very insidious. Often, and more specifically in 30-40% of cases, it gives millions of cases of disability without clinical symptoms.
A number of internal and external factors contribute to the spread of heart disease. Socio-cultural factors include:
Consumption of high-calorie foods rich in saturated fat and cholesterol (obesity, overweight)
Sedentary (inactive) lifestyle
Stressful conditions of modern life in large cities
The cardiovascular system (CVS) is one of the most important systems that determine the vital activity of the body. Nutrition, oxygen supply, distribution of hormones and other active substances are the main tasks of the CVS.
Therefore, CVS diseases are characterized by the development of functional abnormalities not only on the part of the circulatory apparatus, but also of various systems that are in close relationship with it: the central nervous system, DS, digestive, endocrine. CVS diseases lead to a decrease in the functional activity of the whole organism, and often to premature old age, disability, and death.
Physical activity is one of the important conditions for human life and development. It should be considered as a biological stimulus that stimulates the processes of growth, development and formation of the body. Physical activity depends on the functionality of the patient, his age, gender and health status.
Cardiac activity and underlying diseases
The heart is the main muscle, the main “engine” of the human body. It is a very powerful pump, capable of pumping a liter of blood in 10 seconds, despite the fact that this organ of the human body is only the size of a fist. The work of the heart muscle provides blood circulation, supply of oxygen and nutrients to all organs, therefore, disturbances in the work of the CVS affect the health of the whole organism.
However, a person does not appreciate the continuous work of the heart and gives the heart an additional burden in the form of improper nutrition, bad habits, psychoemotional stress, an irregular regime of stress and rest, unfavorable environmental conditions. All this affects the human body, which leads to heart disease. But what exactly is “heart disease”?
Heart disease itself or heart disease is a combination of diseases that are expressed in a violation of the normal functioning of the heart.
Major heart diseases include:
Arterial hypertension and hypotension
Inflammatory heart disease (endocarditis, myocarditis)
Congenital and acquired heart defects
Peripheral artery disease
Coronary artery disease
Rheumatic heart disease
Causes of diseases
As you know, the heart pumps blood not only to the rest of the body, but also to itself through the coronary arteries. These arteries originate from the aorta, the main blood vessel that carries oxygen-rich blood from the heart, and then branch out across the surface of the heart.
When one or more coronary arteries narrow, sufficient blood flow to the heart can be difficult, including during exercise. As a result, the heart muscle, like any other muscle in the body, can ache. If the arteries continue to narrow, even less activity will strain the heart and cause symptoms.
The classic symptoms – chest pain and difficulty breathing due to atherosclerotic or coronary artery disease – are called angina pectoris. Usually, with angina pectoris, the pain radiates to the left arm or jaw.
Symptoms are usually triggered by activity and improve with rest. Some patients may complain of stomach upset and nausea, while others may have pain in the upper abdomen, shoulder or back.
If one of the coronary arteries is completely blocked, as a rule, due to a thrombus, blood flow to part of the heart muscle is completely lost and the muscle part dies off. This is called a heart attack or myocardial infarction.
Myo = muscle + cardia = heart + heart attack = tissue death.
Atherosclerosis is a blockage of blood vessels by atherosclerotic plaques of predominantly lipid (cholesterol) composition, which narrow the lumen of the arteries, impair the structure of their walls and interfere with normal blood circulation.
Research shows that atherosclerosis can start during childhood. Coronary artery lesions were found in young men aged 7-10 years. In the vast majority of cases, atherosclerosis was associated with obesity, which makes it possible to associate the development of atherosclerosis with malnutrition and low physical activity.
People at risk should be especially attentive to cardiac symptoms. Such groups include people with congenital heart defects, with hereditary pathologies; patients with infectious, immune, respiratory, endocrine, nervous diseases; smoking people; obese people, as well as those who are subject to significant physical (athletes) and emotional stress.
Among the many factors affecting the work of the CVS, one can single out:
This is undoubtedly a significant factor. General aging of the body greatly increases the likelihood of developing CC or heart disease.
Research has shown that risk triples with each passing decade. Among those who died from coronary heart disease, 80% were over 65 years old.
Also, according to studies, after age 55, the risk of stroke doubles with every decade lived.
Smoking is one of the main factors in the development of heart disease. The risk of death from myocardial infarction and stroke in a person who smokes increases by 2-4 times.
Smoking causes narrowing of the arteries and destroys the walls of blood vessels, which significantly accelerates the development and aggravates the course of the main cause of almost all heart diseases – atherosclerosis.
Physical inactivity (sedentary lifestyle)
Just 2.5 hours of physical activity per week reduces the risk of CV disease and diabetes mellitus by almost a third. Cardio workouts reduce excess body weight and normalize blood pressure.
Adequate physical activity for the normal functioning of the cardiovascular system:
At least 30 minutes of moderate physical activity – at least 3 times a week
At least 20 minutes of moderate physical activity – at least 5 times a week
Unhealthy diet means an unbalanced diet containing excessive consumption of sugar, fat, salt, chemical food additives.
A few basic recommendations to follow for proper nutrition:
The daily menu should include fruits, fresh vegetables, herbs, etc.
Steam food or in the oven, skip frying in a pan.
Do not overdo it with salt and sugar, it is better not to add salt and sugar.
Keep various flavor enhancers and seasoning to a minimum.
Observe a competent food intake, every 3-4 hours and 2-4 hours before bedtime.
The portions should be medium-sized meals, no need to stretch the stomach and overeat.
Control the amount of proteins, fats, carbohydrates.
Vitamins and minerals must be present guys in your food.
The most common symptoms
Shortness of breath is the most common symptom of heart or lung failure. It can manifest itself as a lack of air, slight suffocation when a person works or just lies. The appearance of shortness of breath in no case can be ignored, since according to statistics, in 90% of cases, a heart attack occurs in people with this symptom.
Sudden dizziness or loss of balance
There is no doubt that this feature is characteristic of many, both pathological and physiological conditions. With heart disease, this symptom can signal vascular pathology, cardiac arrhythmias or heart failure.
Chest pain or discomfort
Probably the most alarming symptom that is characteristic of heart disease. Chest pain can take the form of pressure, constriction, numbness, or simply discomfort in the chest, upper abdomen, or neck. Painful sensations can also be felt in other parts of the body: shoulder, arm, back, and jaw. Pain syndrome can occur abruptly, or repeat from day to day for several weeks. This type of pain is often one of the first symptoms of a heart attack or may indicate the presence of another equally dangerous heart disease.
General tiredness and increased fatigue
Of course, physical fatigue can be associated with increased stress, additional stress and other negative external factors, but do not forget that these symptoms are possible with the development of heart failure.
Many write off the appearance of lethargy on a “difficult day”, thinking: “Still, someday they get tired,” so in most cases, the “first bell” goes unnoticed. As a rule, if there really is a disturbance in the work of the heart, then over time, a person feels more and more “broken”, fatigue accumulates, appetite decreases, heaviness in the legs and swelling of the limbs appear. Focusing on these primary signs, the doctor may well determine the presence of cardiovascular pathology, despite the difficulties of primary diagnosis.
This condition is characterized by an increase in heart rate and heart rate per minute. Almost every healthy person can feel this way, for example, with severe fear, stress, after a run or prolonged physical activity. If the arrhythmia is frequent and prolonged, then we can talk about the presence of serious violations that need to be paid attention to.
Diagnosis of diseases
In the modern world, there are many methods for diagnosing heart disease. The most simple and at the same time, the first step is a medical examination by a doctor. Usually the doctor asks questions in order to identify the disease. Sometimes it is worth telling about the symptoms yourself, because the doctor may lose sight of something and make the wrong diagnosis. It is worth considering in advance the answers to the following points: chest pain, shortness of breath, edema, appetite, body temperature, fatigue.
Some other methods for diagnosing diseases are presented below:
Electrocardiography is probably known to everyone. This is a simple and quick diagnostic method. Sensors are installed on the body, electronic impulses are recorded on a paper tape (cardiogram). With the help of it, you can get a lot of data about the work of the heart. Electrocardiography is absolutely safe for humans.
Cardiac echocardiography is a standard ultrasound scan of the heart. It provides an excellent image to assess functional and morphological changes in the heart. Echocardiography does not require X-rays because ultrasound is used and it is safe.
X-rays are a routine chest X-ray to assess the size and condition of the organs. There is no doubt that radiation is harmful. Completely painless.
Computed tomography – for the purpose of diagnosing heart disease, tomography is not often used, but it can be useful, as it can reveal the anatomical pathologies of the heart and coronary vessels. The radiation is even more intense than with X-ray, but this method is many times more valuable for making a correct diagnosis.
Magnetic resonance imaging is a research method that allows you to get a high-quality image of the heart and chest organs. Does not require X-ray radiation, a powerful magnetic field is created instead. The method is relatively expensive and complex. When carrying out diagnostics, the patient needs to lie still inside the device for about 20 minutes, which is a rather difficult task.
Positron emission tomography is a new diagnostic method that can detect areas of the heart with insufficient blood supply.
A labeled drug is injected into a vein, and then an examination is carried out using an apparatus. With the help of this diagnosis, coronary heart disease and long-term heart attacks are detected.
Cardiac catheterization – a thin catheter is inserted through an artery or vein and advanced into the vessels and cavities of the heart. This method allows you to comprehensively assess the condition of the heart. Fluoroscopy is used to monitor the progress of the catheter. Local anesthesia is used, so the patient experiences only slight discomfort.
Coronary angiography – examination of the coronary arteries using catheters, as in the case of cardiac catheterization. The doctor receives on the screen a clear image of the chambers of the heart and the arteries feeding it. This method is also used for treatment – through a catheter, the normal lumen of the vessel affected by atherosclerosis can be restored. Along with cardiac catheterization, this research method is also a serious intervention and poses some danger.
Therapeutic physical culture (exercise therapy)
The use of physical culture means for prophylactic and therapeutic purposes has a long history.
Already in ancient times, physical exercises, baths, massage, hydrotherapy, diet, climate and many other methods were used for healing. It is believed that preventive (preventive) medicine originated in ancient China. The Chinese paid a lot of attention to disease prevention. It is they who own the aphorism: “A real doctor is not the one who heals the sick, but the one who prevents the disease.”
In ancient India, yogis had more than 800 different breathing exercises, especially many for holding the breath, used for prophylactic purposes and for the treatment of many diseases.
Remedial gymnastics reached a very high level in ancient Rome. Whole books and treatises were published there, which described in detail gymnastic exercises applicable to various diseases, as well as recommended sports exercises (rowing, horseback riding), occupational therapy (picking fruits and grapes), excursions and hiking. In the Middle Ages, exercise, sauna, massage and body hygiene were all but forgotten. This was due to the domination of the Church and the Holy Inquisition in Europe, which in every possible way hindered the development of biological sciences and medicine.
The revival of therapeutic gymnastics began in the 17th century. This time was characterized by the development of biological sciences. In connection with the rapid progress of domestic science and culture in the 19th century, interest in physical methods of treatment, especially in medical gymnastics, massage, and hydrotherapy, increased.
Physical activity is one of the important conditions for human life and development. It should be considered as a biological stimulus that stimulates the processes of growth, development and formation of the body. Physical activity depends on the functional capabilities of the patient, his age, gender, health status.
Therapeutic physical culture (exercise therapy) is a set of methods of treatment, prevention and medical rehabilitation based on the use of physical exercises, specially selected and methodically developed.
When prescribing them, the doctor takes into account the characteristics of the disease, the nature, degree and stage of the disease process in the systems and organs. The therapeutic effect of physical exercises is based on strictly dosed loads in relation to the sick and weakened.
General training (to strengthen and improve the body as a whole)
Special training (aimed at eliminating the impaired functions of certain specific muscle groups)
Gymnastic exercises are classified:
Anatomically based (specific muscle groups)
By independence – active and passive
To accomplish the task, one or another group of exercises is selected (for example, to strengthen the abdominal muscles – exercises in a sitting, standing, lying position) as a result of which the body adapts to gradually increasing loads and corrects disorders caused by diseases.
The attending physician prescribes a therapeutic physical culture, and a specialist in exercise therapy determines the method of training. The procedures are carried out by an instructor, in especially difficult cases – by an exercise therapy doctor.
The use of physiotherapy exercises, increasing the effectiveness of complex therapy of patients, accelerates the recovery period and prevents further progression of the disease. You should not start exercise therapy on your own, as this can lead to a worsening of the condition. The training method prescribed by the doctor must be strictly followed.
General tasks of exercise therapy for cardiovascular diseases:
Improvement of the clinical condition
Improving the emotional state
Improving overall physical performance
Prevention of secondary exacerbations
Partial or complete refusal of medication
Normalization of the blood fatty spectrum
Normalization of blood microcirculation and elimination of hypoxia (low oxygen content in the blood).
Rapid change in the twentieth century. lifestyle associated with urbanization, industrialization and mechanization, largely contributed to the fact that CVS diseases have become a mass phenomenon among the population of economically developed countries.
Modern principles of prevention of CV diseases are based on the fight against risk factors. Large preventive programs carried out in our country and abroad have shown that this is possible, and the decrease in mortality from CV diseases, observed recently in different countries, testifies to this.
Correctly selected and strictly dosed by the doctor physical exercise is a very effective means, primarily in the prevention of CVS. With certain heart diseases, even severe ones, at a certain stage of treatment, gymnastics helps a person to restore his health.
Physical activity at home is especially important during the recovery period. It is gymnastics, which perfectly strengthens and trains the entire CVS, that serves as the best way to restore working capacity and return a person to a normal lifestyle.
To decide whether or not it is possible to engage in physical culture with a particular disease, in what form and with what load, it is always necessary to consult a doctor. The doctor, knowing the patient’s condition, will not only allow gymnastics, but will give a number of instructions on the organization and methodology of exercising it at home and recommend a suitable set of exercises.