Hypertension: diagnosis and treatment

Hypertension: diagnosis and treatment

A sedentary lifestyle, constant severe stress, bad habits can lead to the appearance of heart pathologies. Hypertension is one of the most frequent diseases of a modern person. This pathology is characterized by high blood pressure at rest and for a long time.

Why is hypertension dangerous?


The heart moves blood through the blood vessels, providing oxygen and nutrients to all cells in the body. When blood vessels become clogged or lose their elasticity, the heart starts to work harder and increases the pressure inside the vessels.

Against the background of the disease, with untimely treatment, such serious pathologies as acute heart failure, hypertensive crisis, stroke, myocardial infarction may occur.

The complexity of hypertension is that it often lasts for years with almost no symptoms and a person does not know about the existence of his disease. Symptoms are often observed – headache, fatigue, memory loss, dizziness, high blood pressure, which a person simply does not pay attention to. This may indicate the beginning of the development of the disease.

Hypertension symptoms


ongoing migraines;
numbness of the limbs;
redness of the face;
excessive sweating;
“Midges” before the eyes;
chills;
cardiopalmus.


The reasons for the development of hypertension


Excess weight. People with a tendency to obesity are several times more likely to suffer from heart disease. Also, excess weight is the cause of an increased content of calcium and sodium in the blood, disruption of the normal functioning of the kidneys and diseases of internal organs. This, in turn, is an additional factor for the development of hypertension.
Arterial sclerosis. Due to the presence of atherosclerotic plaques on the walls of blood vessels, normal blood circulation stops. The heart has to work harder to increase the pressure in the vessels.
Stressful situations. During stress, blood pressure rises due to the release of the hormone adrenaline into the blood. Acting on the heart, adrenaline makes it beat faster, throwing more blood into the vessels.
Bad habits. Smoking, drinking alcohol, fatty and heavy foods increase the pressure in the blood vessels, form vasospasm and lead to their damage.
Age. Over the years, a person’s heart wears out. The risk of developing hypertension increases with age if you do not give your health due attention. It is necessary to undergo preventive examinations and give up bad habits, if any. High blood pressure often develops in people over 35 years old.
Genetic predisposition. If first-line relatives (father, mother, siblings, sisters, grandparents) suffer from hypertension, the risk of developing the disease increases.
Sedentary lifestyle. At a low level of stress, metabolism slows down, the nervous system and other body systems are weakened, and immunity is lowered. The risk of developing hypertension increases by 50%.
Hypertension and Hypertension: What’s the Difference?
Hypertension is a chronic disease characterized by persistent increases in blood pressure and general muscle tone.

Hypertension is a condition of the human body with high blood pressure. Unlike hypertension, which is an independent disease, hypertension is a symptom of a pathological condition.

Types of heart hypertension


There are many classifications of the disease, which are based on the patient’s appearance, the level of pressure, the reasons for the increase in blood pressure, the nature of the course of the disease. However, doctors everywhere use the classification according to the degree of the course of the disease.

Hypertension 1 degree – is also called the preclinical stage. This is the mildest form of hypertension, in which blood pressure reaches 140/90 mm. mercury column. There are mild headaches, decreased performance, general fatigue. During the patient’s stay in a calm state, the pressure is normalized.

Hypertension of the 2nd degree is a moderate stage, in which the pressure increases to the level of 180/110 mm. rt. Art. there is the formation of atherosclerotic plaques, hypertrophy of the left ventricle of the heart, an increased concentration of creatinine.

Hypertension 3 degrees – the pressure rises to 220/115 mm. rt. Art. in this case, the risk of complications is high. With this degree of development of pathology, the blood supply to the internal organs is disrupted. Disease 3 degrees can manifest itself as renal failure, hemorrhage from the eyes, blindness.

How is the disease diagnosed?


When the first symptoms of hypertension appear, consult a cardiologist. He will conduct an examination and send for analyzes:

general analysis of blood and urine ;
a blood test for hemoglobin ;
urine analysis for protein and glucose ;
electrocardiography ;
echocardiography;
chest x-ray ;
biochemical blood test to detect levels of cholesterol, urea, glucose and calcium;
phosphates and uric acid;
computed tomography ;
ultrasound examination .
Based on the test results, the attending physician will determine whether there is hypertension, the stability of the increase in pressure, the degree of development of pathological changes in internal organs, the cause of the increased pressure.

Hypertension treatment


The method of therapeutic therapy depends on the degree of development of the disease. In the first preclinical stage, it is possible to maintain normal blood pressure levels without the use of medication. The patient needs to balance nutrition, give up bad habits, lead an active lifestyle and normalize sleep and work.

When treating 2 degrees of hypertension, the doctor prescribes a medication for long-term use and with a minimum number of contraindications, combined with moderate activity and rejection of bad habits. The drug is prescribed by a cardiologist after examining the patient. The drugs must be taken continuously, as this can cause a stroke or heart attack.

Therapy of 3 degrees of hypertension is carried out with the help of 1-2 drugs from different drug groups in conjunction with an active lifestyle and stabilization of nutrition and sleep patterns.

diuretics with a diuretic effect are prescribed for salt and water retention in the body;
to normalize blood circulation – ACE inhibitors;
calcium antagonists – to reduce the oxygen demand of the heart muscle;
beta – blockers for atrial fibrillation or other concomitant pathologies.
Therefore, when determining therapeutic therapy, the doctor must know the patient’s entire medical history, take into account contraindications, lifestyle and physical characteristics (body weight, height).

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