Exercise is good for the entire circulatory system as well. Blood flows to the muscles, enriched with oxygen, which also increases performance. According to research data, physical activity leads to the normalization of systolic blood pressure, the disappearance of pain in the heart and ischemic diseases, and is important in the prevention of atherosclerosis. Training in long-distance running strengthens joints and muscles, helps to achieve more efficient work of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Physical education activates the mental activity of both young and old people. Exercise also has a positive effect on the digestive system.
“The heart is the main center of the circulatory system, which works like a pump that moves the blood in the body. As a result of physical training, the size and weight of the heart increases due to the thickening of the walls of the heart muscle and an increase in its volume, which increases the power and performance of the heart muscle. Blood in the human body performs the following functions: transport, regulatory, protective, heat exchange ”.
“With regular exercise: the number of erythrocytes and the amount of hemoglobin increases, as a result of which the oxygen capacity of the blood increases; they increase the body's resistance to colds and infectious diseases, due to an increase in the activity of leukocytes; recovery processes are accelerated after significant blood loss "
Physical activity reliably increases the vitality of a person. “Its mechanism is reduced to regulating the relationship between the processes of fatigue and recovery. Whether an individual muscle or several groups, a nerve cell or salivary gland, heart, lungs or liver are being trained, the basic laws of training each of them, as well as organ systems. Under the influence of the load, which is specific for each organ, its vital activity increases and fatigue develops soon. It is known that fatigue reduces the efficiency of an organ; its ability to stimulate the recovery process in a working organ is less known, which significantly changes the idea of fatigue.
Physical health is the state of the body, due to the normal functioning of all its organs and systems. If all organs and systems work well, then the entire human body functions and develops correctly. Good coordination of movements, the ability to analyze and distribute forces both physically and mentally, to determine exactly when to exert strength, and when to rest, save energy - these qualities are vital for everyone. the heart of a person who loves physical education and sports is not like the heart of someone who leads a sedentary lifestyle. It has more powerful and thick walls, and most importantly, systematic exercises reduce the heart rate, respectively, increasing the period of rest. Thanks to this, the heart gets tired less, which again has a beneficial effect on the general blood supply to the body.
The human heart at rest in one contraction pushes 50-70 ml of blood into the aorta, per minute at 70-80 contractions 3.5-5 liters. Systematic physical training enhances the function of the heart and brings the systolic volume to 90-110 ml at rest, and with very high physical exertion, 150 and even 200 ml. At the same time, the heart rate increases to 200 or more, the minute volume, respectively, up to 25, and sometimes 40 liters. The heart rate in an adult at rest is usually 72-84 per minute, for the heart of an athlete at rest is characterized by baricardia, i.e. the frequency of contractions is below 60 beats per minute (sometimes up to 36-38). The blood flow in the working muscles increases tenfold, and the number of working capillaries also increases many times. Metabolic intensity with the use of oxygen increases tenfold.
Muscles are the active part of the locomotor system. In different sports, the load on the muscles is different in intensity and volume, it can be associated with slow or fast movements. In this regard, the changes occurring in the muscles will not be the same. Sports training increases muscle strength, elasticity, strength, and other qualities.
With moderate exertion, the muscles increase in volume, blood supply improves, and reserve capillaries open. Under the influence of systematic training, working muscle hypertrophy occurs, which is the result of thickening of muscle fibers (hypertrophy), as well as an increase in their number (hyperplasia). Thickening of muscle fibers is accompanied by an increase in their nuclei, myofibrils.
An increase in the number of muscle fibers occurs in three ways: by splitting hypertrophied fibers into two or three or more thin ones, growing new muscle fibers from muscle kidneys, and also forming muscle fibers from satellite cells, which turn into myoblasts, and then into muscle tubes. The splitting of muscle fibers is preceded by a rearrangement of their motor innervation, as a result of which one or two additional motor nerve endings are formed on the hypertrophied fibers. Due to this, after splitting, each new muscle fiber has its own muscle innervation. The blood supply to new fibers is carried out by capillaries, which penetrate into the longitudinal fissure.
The main types of physical activity, each include: Morning work-out for the development of various muscle groups, strengthening the ligament apparatus, improving joint mobility, to improve coordination. For hypotonic patients, speed-strength and strength exercises are recommended - in order to increase blood pressure indicators to normal, for hypertensive patients, techniques aimed at relaxing muscles, breathing techniques are suitable; Walking at a different pace. They usually start with a slow pace and short steps, then gradually increase the tempo and increase the length of the stride. The good thing about walking is that it does not need to allocate time in a busy work schedule - it is enough to replace commuting to work with public transport for a walk that benefits the body. The most important thing is to follow the correct breathing (entry in the first or second steps, exhalation in the third or fourth, then increase the interval). A slow pace for walking is considered to be 60-80 steps / min, and a fast pace is about 120 steps / min.
The first rule of training is the gradual increase in the intensity and duration of the loads. “The healing effect for different organs is not achieved simultaneously. Much depends on the loads, which are difficult for some organs to take into account, so you need to focus on those organs and functions that react the slowest. The most vulnerable organ during training is the heart, therefore, almost all healthy people should be guided by its capabilities with increasing loads. If a person's organ is damaged, then his reaction to the load should be taken into account on an equal basis with the heart, and even in the first place. For most untrained people, only the heart is at risk during physical exertion. But if the most elementary rules are observed, this risk is minimal, if the person does not yet suffer from diseases of the cardiovascular system. Therefore, you should not catch up in the shortest possible time and immediately become healthy. Such impatience is dangerous for the heart."
The second rule, when starting a health-improving workout, consists in the variety of the means used. “For a qualitative variety of physical activities, only 7-12 exercises are enough, but they differ significantly from each other. This will allow you to train different aspects of the functional abilities of the heart and the whole organism. If one or two exercises are used, and besides, if they involve small muscle groups in the activity, then highly specialized training effects arise. Thus, many gymnastic exercises do not at all improve the general reactivity of the heart. But running, involving a large number of muscles, is an excellent means of versatile training.
The third rule, walks, were only partially replaced by running, breathing exercises, simple and slowly performed movements of the arms, legs and trunk, borrowed from the generally accepted morning hygienic gymnastics - that was practically all that was recommended to the population. Moreover, not for people with diseases of the cardiovascular system, but for everyone who is over 40 years old.
Physical activity in the form of sports training has a positive effect on the heart. The walls of the heart muscle are thickened, and its volume increases, which increases the power and efficiency of the heart muscle, thereby reducing the number of heart contractions. A trained heart is also able to stimulate the processes of fatigue and recovery during intense training.
The heart and blood vessels play a very important role - they provide the transfer of oxygen and nutrients to organs and tissues and the removal of waste products (toxins) from them.
When performing physical activity, the work of the heart changes significantly: the heart rate increases and the volume of blood pushed out by the heart in one contraction increases.
Regular exercise increases the strength of the intercostal respiratory muscles and diaphragm, increases the mobility of the chest, and thereby increases the tidal volume of the lungs. With regular exercise, the ability to perform work also increases in conditions when the body has a lack of oxygen. It must be remembered that the main regulator of respiration is carbon dioxide contained in the blood. With an increase in its concentration in the blood, it increases the activity of the respiratory center in the brain. This center is less sensitive to a lack of oxygen. That is why it is impossible and even dangerous to take multiple inhales and exhales before diving. Such breathing leads to a sharp decrease in carbon dioxide in the blood. And while swimming underwater with a holding breath, oxygen is quickly used by the body and its content is so reduced that you can lose consciousness.
What happens under the influence of muscle training? It is known that the number of muscle fibers in them increases, with each fiber becoming thicker. This provides an increase in muscle strength. Under the influence of physical exercise, the content of myoglobin increases in the muscles, which can easily combine with blood oxygen and give it to muscle tissues during work. As a result of training, the number of capillaries in the muscles increases and their supply of nutrients and oxygen improves.